Analyzing the effect of PQ4R learning intervention on learning outcomes and retention of slow learner students across the reading phase

Authors

  • Aqsa Batool PhD Scholar (Applied Psychology), Department of Applied Psychology, Bahauddin Zakarya University Multan Pakistan
  • Sarwat Sultan Professor, Department of Applied Psychology, Bahauddin Zakarya University Multan, Pakistan
  • Mehvish Shafiq PhD Scholar (Applied Psychology), Department of Applied Psychology, Bahauddin Zakarya University Multan Pakistan

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.69565/jess.v3i3.331

Keywords:

PQ4R, Learning outcomes, Retention, Slow learners, General Science

Abstract

Challenges related to inadequate learning outcomes and retention among slow learner students necessitate introducing innovative solutions within the educational process. Therefore, the study analyzed the effect of PQ4R learning intervention on learning outcomes and retention of slow learners across the reading phase using the experimental method with a mixed between-within repeated measure design. The slow learner students (n=20) were selected purposively. The participants were randomly assigned to 4 groups: three experimental groups who used the PQ4R learning strategy across the reading phase (before, during, and after reading) and one control group who did not apply PQ4R across the reading phase. Learning outcomes and retention were parameters in the form of multiple-choice questions measured over three times in a pretest, posttest, and follow-up period. A mixed Between-Within ANOVA was used to analyze the significance of students' learning outcomes over time. The findings proved that PQ4R learning intervention had a significant positive effect on the learning outcomes of experimental groups over time, and participants in the experimental groups scored higher in the post-test than the control group. Moreover, PQ4R learning intervention also significantly affects the retention of students' learning outcomes over time. Hence, consistent exposure to PQ4R learning intervention over time can lead to more sustainable improvements in slow-learner students' learning outcomes.

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Published

2024-07-09

How to Cite

Batool, A., Sultan, S., & Shafiq, M. (2024). Analyzing the effect of PQ4R learning intervention on learning outcomes and retention of slow learner students across the reading phase . Journal of Excellence in Social Sciences, 3(3), 71–83. https://doi.org/10.69565/jess.v3i3.331

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Section

Articles