Journal of Excellence in Social Sciences https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess <p>Journal of Excellence in Social Sciences is the flagship journal of the Society of Management Research and Consultancy (SMARCONS). The main goal of the Journal of Excellence in Social Sciences (JESS) is to publish original articles (Quantitative and Qualitative), book reviews and case studies in the field of social sciences with the aim to reduce the gap between academics, research and practice. JESS is open access, international, scholarly peer-reviewed research journal which publishes original research after double-blind peer review process.</p> en-US jess@smarcons.com (Editor JESS) journals@smarcons.com (System Administrator) Sat, 18 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.12 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Estimating the Students’ behavior toward their potential marital tendencies https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/226 <p>The purpose of doing research with a survey is to collect data from a statistically significant subset of the population using a predetermined set of questions. Some people may be wary of participating in sample research because of the personal information that participants may divulge. People's tendency to conform to societal standards while answering surveys can affect response rates. The RRT has resulted in an ever-expanding corpus of work on other approaches to acquiring sufficient RR patterns to represent a population subset. Standard random, to simplify the way respondents reply to sensitive questions and estimate the proportion of people who have a specific responding trait, surveys commonly use binary replies. On the other side, there have been investigations into situations where sensitive question answers provide quantitative variables. Warner's contributions have sparked significant interest and research in this area. These methods have found applications in many other places, and much literature exists on them. However, these approaches have problems and limits, so new indirect strategies have emerged. Regarding sensitive traits like cheating, the Mangat Singh UB randomized response methodology yields more accurate findings than RRT techniques.</p> Anam Nisar , Muhammad Ahmed Shehzad, Javeria Aslam, Mohammad Adnan Aslam , Aamna Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Anam Nisar , Muhammad Ahmed Shehzad, Javeria Aslam, Mohammad Adnan Aslam https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/226 Wed, 15 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Studying the Effect of Problem-Based Learning on Mathematics Achievement of Elementary Students https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/246 <p>This research aimed to study the impact of problem-based learning on the mathematics achievements of elementary students. Employing a quasi-experimental design with pre and post-tests, the study used convenient sampling to draw its sample from public elementary schools in district Multan. 498 students from 20 public elementary schools participated, with one school undergoing intervention. In this school, the sixth-grade class was divided into two groups: the experimental group (n=25) received problem-based learning instruction, while the control group (n=27) received conventional teaching. A test based on three chapters of the mathematics course, aligned with the lower levels of Bloom’s taxonomy, was administered both before and after the intervention. Test scores were analyzed using SPSS, employing descriptive and inferential statistics to derive conclusions. Results indicate a significant improvement in the achievement of the experimental group following the problem-based learning intervention, while only a slight change was observed in the control group. Additionally, the findings suggest that girls outperformed boys in mathematics, contrary to existing research. Limitations and suggestions for future research were also discussed.</p> Bashir Ahmad , Asia Zulfiqar, Dr Ruqia Safdar Bajwa Copyright (c) 2024 Bashir Ahmad , Asia Zulfiqar, Dr Ruqia Safdar Bajwa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/246 Sun, 19 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Unveiling the Efficacy: Examining the Influence of Public Surveillance Cameras on Crime Rates https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/185 <p>The importance of surveillance cameras in policing and security is hard to overstate. It can potentially enhance the operational capacity of law enforcement agencies by deterring crime and supporting investigation and prosecution. Now, it is possible to employ new, cost-effective technologies that can aid police in controlling the crime rate. Surveillance cameras have become an integral part of policing and security in Lahore. This study provides the first evaluation in Pakistan that examines the effect of surveillance cameras on crime. We have used ‘15’ emergency helpline data and interrupted time series analysis to explore the impact of surveillance cameras on crime in Lahore. We found a statistically significant reduction in street crime in the short run, but no reduction was found in the long run. This could result from ineffective technology implementation or cameras installed only on a few major roads within Lahore. Further cost-benefit analysis of such technologies is required to take spillovers and the number of arrests into account to obtain more precise estimates.</p> Hamza Tariq, Malik Muhammad Amer, Kashif Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Hamza Tariq, Malik Muhammad Amer, Kashif Ali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/185 Wed, 15 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Service Quality on Students’ Satisfaction in Public Universities of Pakistan https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/236 <p>The study examines the complex interplay between service quality, student happiness, university sustainability strategies, and motivation, particularly emphasizing the elements that regulate and mediate these connections in Pakistan's public institutions. Primary data were acquired online using Google Form surveys from senior students enrolled at level 6th of the Pakistani Qualification Framework, with a population of 1.96 million and a sample size of 515 individuals. The sample employed descriptive and quantitative analysis to explain all hypotheses using partial least squares (PLS). This study has added to the literature on higher education service quality by investigating relationships between service quality, university sustainability, motivation, and student happiness. It sheds light on the complex factors that shape the educational experience in Pakistan's public institutions. It also serves as a basis for future research and practical initiatives in higher education management and policy. Comparative research of public and private sector university students is required to address the increasing difficulties that affect students in Pakistan's higher education industry.</p> Rao Mazhar Hussain, Muhammad Waqas Maharvi Copyright (c) 2024 Rao Mazhar Hussain, Muhammad Waqas Maharvi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/236 Sun, 05 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Unleashing the Potential of Industry 4.0: Analyzing Pakistan's Tourism in the Global Arena https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/233 <p>Research on Pakistan's Tourism Development has increased in recent years. Nevertheless, there is a scarcity of quantitative investigations on Pakistan's tourism development for many reasons, including a need for more infrastructure and incorporation of the digital Industry. However, in recent years, many research publications in this area have been published, and a bibliometric analysis of 500 publications was collected from the Scopus database. Biblioshiny and RStudio software tools were used for descriptive and network analyses. Regarding publications and citations, Sustainability and Journal of Cleaner Production have earned the top rankings among journals. China currently holds the leading position in both Industry 4.0 and tourism. University Utara Malaysia has published 22 articles and is dominant in this field. From 2015 to 2023, Fig. 11 shows that China and Pakistan have emerged as the frontrunners in research article publications related to Tourism and Industry 4.0. Pakistan shares the second position with Saudi Arabia, having many publications. The research results showed that the overall publication trend in this domain increased. According to the World Tourism Organization's report, the number of international tourists who reached their destinations in 2019 reached 1.5 billion, reflecting 4%. The tourism industry played a substantial role in the worldwide economy during the year 2018, constituting 10.4% of the global Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and generating job opportunities for an estimated 319 million people across the globe. Pakistan can potentially improve its digital marketing efforts, incorporate virtual and augmented reality experiences, establish intelligent tourism infrastructure, and promote contactless payments and digital services as per the analysis. Moreover, leverage data analytics for personalized marketing, and prioritize sustainability by analyzing the strategies implemented by countries like Singapore, the United Arab Emirates, and Japan. The adoption of cutting-edge technologies has the potential to establish Pakistan as a prominent tourism destination, leading to the promotion of economic growth and societal advancement. The study will contribute toward a better understanding of the existing tourism in Pakistan and its impact on the economy of Pakistan. By researching and exploring, we have concluded that the adoption of cutting-edge technologies has the potential to establish Pakistan as a prominent tourism destination, promoting economic growth and societal advancement.</p> Mehar Tahir Farid, Munazza Rashid, kiran manzoor Copyright (c) 2024 Munazza Rashid, kiran manzoor, Mehar Tahir Farid https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/233 Sat, 18 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Embracing the Future: Adoption of Industry 4.0 in the Aviation Industry https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/295 <p>The invention of the cyber-physical and intelligent system has ushered the world into the fourth industrial revolution known as Industry 4.0, which has crept into almost every type of industry. The aviation industry, one of the heavy technology dependents, is most sensitive to technological changes. However, little literature is available on this field related to Industry 4.0. Thus, this study bridged the gap in the literature and explored the relevant Industry 4.0 technologies of the aviation industry. Initial data were collected from a systematic literature review of articles published till 2023. In contrast, primary data related to the aviation industry was gathered through a questionnaire from experts in the field and analyzed through the fuzzy Delphi method. The result of the systematic literature review revealed that 19 identified technologies of Industry 4.0. In contrast, only fifteen are relevant for the aviation industry, with an average fuzzy score of more than 0.5, with digitization as the most important. The findings of this research will be beneficial for academia as a foundation of theory building, further research, and practical utilization for managers in the aviation industry.</p> Adeel Zafar, Ather Azim Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Adeel Zafar, Ather Azim Khan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/295 Sun, 05 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Commercial Arbitration: A Messiah for the Dying Economy of Pakistan https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/230 <p>The article "Commercial Arbitration: A Messiah for the Dying Economy of Pakistan" discusses the role of commercial arbitration in Pakistan's economy. It highlights how commercial arbitration can solve economic challenges by providing a fair and efficient dispute resolution mechanism. The article likely delves into how implementing commercial arbitration can attract foreign investment, promote business growth, and enhance economic stability in Pakistan. Additionally, it may explore the benefits of arbitration over traditional litigation, such as confidentiality, flexibility, and neutrality in decision-making. The article's main argument is that commercial arbitration can solve economic challenges by providing a fair and efficient mechanism for resolving disputes. Commercial arbitration can attract foreign investment, promote business growth, and enhance financial stability in Pakistan. The article also explores the benefits of arbitration over traditional litigation, such as confidentiality, flexibility, and neutrality in decision-making.</p> Syyad Arslan Hussain, khushbakht qaiser, Muhammad waqas, Dr. Muhammad Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Syyad Arslan Hussain, khushbakht qaiser, Muhammad waqas, Dr. Muhammad Ali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/230 Mon, 20 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Navigating the Medication Maze: A Study on Self-Medication Practices Among Nurses in Public and Private Hospitals of Multan, Pakistan https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/280 <p>The study aimed to analyze gender disparity in self-medication practices among nurses in private and public hospitals across diverse departments and assess personal and professional factors driving self-medication. The study followed a Cross-sectional Quantitative research design. The respondents were male and female nurses aged 18-50 from Public and Private Hospitals in Multan. Using a multistage sampling method, two public and two private hospitals were selected through simple random sampling from a pool of 16 hospitals in Multan City. One hundred fifty respondents were selected using purposive sampling, specifically targeting nurses actively doing their jobs. The data was gathered by survey method using a self-administered structured questionnaire, which included specific constructs measured using a 5-point Likert scale that ranged from strongly agree to disagree strongly. Univariate analysis, i.e., frequencies and percentages, was conducted using SPSS. A bivariate study used an Independent Sample t-test to ascertain the mean difference between two variables, specifically gender and hospital type. As part of the multivariate analysis, Multiple Linear Regression was used to determine the effect of different professional and personal factors on self-medication practice. ANOVA was applied to analyze the variance in self-medication practices among nurses posted at different departments. Most nurses practice self-medication for various diseases, with private hospital nurses being more interested than government nurses, and female nurses practicing self-medication more than males. Professional and personal factors had a significant impact on self-medication practices. Findings suggested that nurses should be educated about health literacy, coping methods, and self-medication behaviors to create a supportive environment for open discussions and monitoring procedures.</p> Muhammad Meesum Hassan, Syeda Kainat Zahra, Sidra Hussain, Saima Afzal Copyright (c) 2024 Muhammad Meesum Hassan, Syeda Kainat Zahra, Saima Afzal, Sidra Hussain https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/280 Wed, 05 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring politeness strategies: A comparative study of speeches of American and Chinese Presidents at UNGA 78th session https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/222 <p>Politeness is the practical application of good manners or etiquette so as not to offend others and to put them at ease. It is a culturally defined phenomenon, and therefore what is considered polite in one culture can sometimes be quite rude or simply eccentric in another cultural context. Brown and Levinson suggested four different politeness strategies that can help to make successful conversation by avoiding face threatening acts. Aim of the present study was to explore politeness strategies proposed by Brown and Levinson [4] in the speeches of the American and Chinese presidents at UNGA 78th session. The study was a comparative analysis of politeness strategies used by presidents in their speech at UNGA. The study used mixed methods research approach for the detailed analysis and comparison of politeness strategies in the speech. In present study both quantitative and qualitative analysis were used. Both speeches were analysed qualitatively by applying Brown and Levinson theory of politeness. Excel sheets were used to analyse data quantitatively. Findings showed that American president used more politeness strategies as compared to Chinese president. It was also observed that cultural difference was the reason of difference in the use of politeness strategies by American and Chinese president in their speech.</p> Saira Batool, Asifa Noreen, Maryam Sultan Copyright (c) 2024 Saira Batool, Asifa Noreen, Maryam Sultan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/222 Mon, 11 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Revamping Education Systems: Studying the Impact of Learning Technology Adoption on stakeholder Engagement and stakeholder Performance during Pandemic Recovery" A Quantitative study. https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/237 <p>In the post-pandemic educational climate, the sector's transformation had made it possible to introduce new paradigms by fusing technology with established practices. The abrupt change has created a need to research the performance and engagement behaviors of the stakeholders in education. In educational roles, students must learn and perform admirably, and teachers' levels of engagement in an online learning environment must also be considered. It is a comparison study that included a sample of 360 teachers and 360 students and used questionnaire survey methods. This study used a two-phase study design in which the average age and gender differences for technology adaptability among online teachers and learners were compared through cross-tabulation of the teachers' and students' data. The adoption of learning technologies' mediating effects on the relationship between stakeholder engagement and performance were examined using SEM analysis. The results of this study quantified the weak mediator role that learning technology adoption played in the relationship between stakeholder engagement and performance. In the era of technology adoption in the field of education, this study developed a new statistical relationship of variables that demonstrated the significance of stakeholder engagement in the roles of teachers and stakeholder performance in the roles of students. The statistical analysis revealed that Learning Technology Adoption was a weak variable in the relationship between Engagement and Performance that had a negative mediating effect and actually lessened the impact of the direct relationship between the variables.</p> Huma Ali, Mishal jafar, Hafiz Muhammad Jahanzaib Copyright (c) 2024 Huma Ali, Mishal jafar, Hafiz Muhammad Jahanzaib https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/237 Sun, 05 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Socio-Economic Determinants of Migration in Pakistan https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/163 <p>Different migration theories represent different variables about determinants, degrees, and dynamics of migration. Some other theories discuss the economic aspects of migration at the personal and household level, such as the neo-classical and the new economics of colonial theories. This study examines the determinants of migration based on current theories of migration. We use primary (micro) data for this purpose: Pakistan Demographic Household Survey (PDHS) 2017-18. Moreover, we think that the decision to migrate is not the individual’s decision; it is the collective decision of the home, and we have included the household-level characteristics in the analysis. The study aims to analyse the socio-economic determinants of migration in Pakistan. Logistic regression is applied to assess the impact of socio-economic determinants of migration in Pakistan. Marriages (71%) play a major role in immigration decision-making in Pakistan, and migration in Pakistan is the predominant factor. Education has a positive relationship with migration. The better economic opportunities have a significant impact on migration.</p> Nazesh Altaf Copyright (c) 2024 Nazesh Altaf https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/163 Tue, 05 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Cyber-Bullying Impact on Young Adults; Examining Stress, Coping Mechanism and Self-Esteem https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/234 <p>The current study aimed to identify the relationship among Cyberbullying, stress, coping and self-esteem in young adults. A correlational study design was used with purposive sampling for data collection. An online survey method was used to collect data due to the global COVID-19 pandemic, and N = 152 students from public and private universities from around the country participated in this study. Scale of Revised Cyber-bullying Scale II (Topcu &amp; Erdur-Baker, 2018) α =.75, perceived stress scale (Sheldon Cohen, 1994), α =.87, coping scale (Hamby et al., 2013). The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) α=.70 was used to assess the variables. The researcher also devised a demographic sheet. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analyses were computed to find a relationship among cyberbullying, stress, coping, and self-esteem. Linear regression analyses were carried out to analyse the role of cyberbullying, stress, and dealing with self-esteem. The findings of the study revealed that cyberbullying, stress, and coping predicted self-esteem, whereas coping was a significant mediator between cyberbullying and stress. This study will be helpful for the students in highlighting the issue of cyberbullying and the importance of coping, which affects their self-esteem.</p> Noor Ul Ain Soomra, Ishtiaq Ahmad, Sidra Tul Muntaha, Zaheen Saba Copyright (c) 2024 Noor Ul Ain Soomra, Ishtiaq Ahmad, Sidra Tul Muntaha, Zaheen Saba https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/234 Thu, 11 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Lime versus Lemon: Factors That Constitute the Differences between Hausa and Igbo Entrepreneurs in Nigeria https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/309 <p>The level of economic development, standards of living, and employment across countries or regions in a country differ considerably from the level of entrepreneurship. The same phenomenon is observed in Nigeria as literature downplayed the economic significance of Hausas despite being involved in long-distance trading for many centuries. Meanwhile, excellent interpretation of Igbo skills in economic activities has been widely reported. Therefore, this paper identified those factors accounting for differences in the entrepreneurial development between Hausa and Igbos in Nigeria. Ten Hausa and Igbo entrepreneurs were used in these qualitative interviews. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed thematically using ATLAS t. i7. Eventually, four broad categories identified were: the background of the entrepreneur; the nature and mindset of the entrepreneur; the entrepreneur’s goals and aims; and well as orientation and nature of the business. Thus, identifying these factors serves as a guide for policymakers to design an appropriate model for the development of Hausa entrepreneurship.</p> Ibrahim Tijjani Sabiu, Muhammad Arslan Sarwar, Waqas Manzoor , Adnan Bashir Copyright (c) 2024 Ibrahim Tijjani Sabiu, Muhammad Arslan Sarwar, Waqas Manzoor , Adnan Bashir https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/309 Tue, 04 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the Link between Intellectual Capital and Firm Financial Performance through Mediation of Innovation Speed https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/231 <p>This study aimed to examine the association between intellectual capital and the financial performance of firms, taking innovation speed into account as a mediating factor. Our study paradigm is built upon the innovation literature and the IC viewpoint. Utilizing structural equation modeling, we examine data gathered from the top 10 information technology companies operating in Pakistan, with 320 employees serving as the sample size for the model's testing. The findings indicate a significant association between the elements of intellectual capital, i.e., human and structural capital, and the speed of innovation. This relationship, in turn, improves the financial performance of a company. The speed of innovation serves as a crucial mediator, magnifying the influence of human and structural capital on economic performance. Among the limited number of research papers exploring the potential mediating influence of innovation speed on the association between intellectual capital and firm performance, this study significantly contributes to the existing body of knowledge in human resource management concerning innovation and intellectual capital. Moreover, it offers practical comprehensions for managers on harmonizing their practices and strategies to cultivate intellectual capital while simultaneously striving towards the Firm's financial performance objectives and fostering innovation.</p> Muhammad Fahad Siddiqui, Shahzadi Sattar, Sadaf Nawaz, Sohail Ijaz Copyright (c) 2024 Shahzadi Sattar, Muhammad Fahad Siddiqui, Sadaf Nawaz, Sohail Ijaz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/231 Sun, 21 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Enterprise Recourse Planning Adoption Behaviour in SMEs of Pakistan with the Mediating Role of Attitude https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/293 <p>The majority of a company's crucial business procedures are supported by the enterprise resource planning (ERP) system. It supports the upkeep of consistent and trustworthy data collection for decision-making while SMEs are still reticent to adopt innovative technologies such as ERP. This study examines the effect of innovativeness in information technology and task technology fit on ERP adoption behavior. Moreover, this study also investigates how attitudes toward technology mediate the said relationships. The method of research used in this study was quantitative. The data was gathered from employees of SMEs in Pakistan that have ERP systems by using a Google survey form. 247 respondents filled out the questionnaire. This study used partial least square structure equation modeling PLS-SEM to conduct the measurements and test the hypothesis.</p> Waseem Subhani , Muhammad Azeem Naz, Nasir Sultan, Muhammad Umair Nazir Copyright (c) 2024 Waseem Subhani , Muhammad Azeem Naz, Nasir Sultan, Muhammad Umair Nazir https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.smarcons.com/index.php/jess/article/view/293 Wed, 15 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000