Journal of Excellence in Social Sciences <p>Journal of Excellence in Social Sciences is the flagship journal of the Society of Management Research and Consultancy (SMARCONS). The main goal of the Journal of Excellence in Social Sciences (JESS) is to publish original articles (Quantitative and Qualitative), book reviews and case studies in the field of social sciences with the aim to reduce the gap between academics, research and practice. JESS is open access, international, scholarly peer-reviewed research journal which publishes original research after double-blind peer review process.</p> Society of Management Research and Consultancy, London, UK en-US Journal of Excellence in Social Sciences 2755-3876 Exploring talent of rural area of Azad Jammu Kashmir and academic excellence <p>To highlight the problems and challenges of rural areas students of Azad Kashmir to not achieving academic excellence. I used a mixed research method to use the responses of 36 respondents from districts (Neelum 15; Sudhnoti 6; Bagh 05, and Muzaffarabad 10) of AJK. The collected data was manually analyzed using descriptive techniques by mean, percentage, and frequency. Most outcomes show that financial crisis, lack of support, motivation, guidance, counseling, bad parental relationships, and most minor educational institutions are common issues. Due to this effect, many talented students fail to continue their education. The importance of this study is that gifted students are the assistants of the country. The study found that this dangerous issue could be solved if specific steps were taken.</p> Waqas Ahmed Sher Muhammad Awan Muhammad Sami Ullah Naila Islam Misbah Manzoor Copyright (c) 2024 Waqas Ahmed, Sher Muhammad Awan, Muhammad Sami Ullah, Naila Islam, Misbah Manzoor 2024-03-28 2024-03-28 3 3 178 188 10.69565/jess.v3i3.305 Navigating the Medication Maze: A Study on Self-Medication Practices Among Nurses in Public and Private Hospitals of Multan, Pakistan <p>The study aimed to analyze gender disparity in self-medication practices among nurses in private and public hospitals across diverse departments and assess personal and professional factors driving self-medication. The study followed a Cross-sectional Quantitative research design. The respondents were male and female nurses aged 18-50 from Public and Private Hospitals in Multan. Using a multistage sampling method, two public and two private hospitals were selected through simple random sampling from a pool of 16 hospitals in Multan City. One hundred fifty respondents were selected using purposive sampling, specifically targeting nurses actively doing their jobs. The data was gathered by survey method using a self-administered structured questionnaire, which included specific constructs measured using a 5-point Likert scale that ranged from strongly agree to disagree strongly. Univariate analysis, i.e., frequencies and percentages, was conducted using SPSS. A bivariate study used an Independent Sample t-test to ascertain the mean difference between two variables, specifically gender and hospital type. As part of the multivariate analysis, Multiple Linear Regression was used to determine the effect of different professional and personal factors on self-medication practice. ANOVA was applied to analyze the variance in self-medication practices among nurses posted at different departments. Most nurses practice self-medication for various diseases, with private hospital nurses being more interested than government nurses, and female nurses practicing self-medication more than males. Professional and personal factors had a significant impact on self-medication practices. Findings suggested that nurses should be educated about health literacy, coping methods, and self-medication behaviors to create a supportive environment for open discussions and monitoring procedures.</p> Muhammad Meesum Hassan Syeda Kainat Zahra Sidra Hussain Saima Afzal Copyright (c) 2024 Muhammad Meesum Hassan, Syeda Kainat Zahra, Saima Afzal, Sidra Hussain 2024-06-05 2024-06-05 3 3 33 45 10.69565/jess.v3i3.280 Efficiency of OLS and Huber M estimator in case of Outliers <p>Regression analysis is a valuable tool when dealing with real-world datasets that include several types of variables. Assumption fulfillment leads to applying ordinary least square regression (OLS) on the chosen variables. When analyzing data using traditional multiple regression, the optimal technique is the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimate, provided the requirements for regression weights are satisfied. Results and estimates from samples might be misleading if the data does not match all these assumptions. Particularly problematic for least squares regression is the presence of outliers. Robust regression analysis is a typically used method. In outliers, the research aims to compare M-estimators with OLS Estimators. The effectiveness is evaluated by comparing the Huber M estimate's coefficient with the OLS estimators. To achieve the study's objective, we use Microsoft Excel to build a Monte Carlo simulation for the response and explanatory variables, which are typically distributed. The normal distribution is used to create 1,000 randomly selected integers. In order to assess the effectiveness of the estimations, outliers with varying percentages are subsequently inserted. The results demonstrate that OLS was affected by the x- and y-axis outliers. There will be no impact on the Huber M estimate from the x-axis outliers. Outliers in the Y-direction impacted the Huber M findings.</p> Sania Shoukat Shahbaz Nawaz Muhammad Muzamil Rasheed Anam Javaid Hafiz Abdul Sami Copyright (c) 2024 Sania Shoukat, Shahbaz Nawaz, Muhammad Muzamil Rasheed, Anam Javaid, Hafiz Abdul Sami 2024-07-05 2024-07-05 3 3 55 60 10.69565/jess.v3i3.329 Impact of COVID 19 on teachers, teaching profession towards technology adaptation and attendance at educational institute. Evidence from Pakistan <p>The objective of our study is to explore the relationship between the COVID-19 pandemic and teacher attitudes towards technology adaptation and attendance. We take the 18 Educational institute data from the school education department from January 2020 to January 2021 to fulfil this objective. Our research is based on secondary data. Data is collected physically from the school information system and the Punjab Information Technology Board. The analysis is carried out through EViews using regression analysis. Our results show that COVID-19 has no significant relationship with teacher attendance. Teacher learning objectives and the COVID-19 pandemic have a significant negative relationship, which means that COVID-19 affect the learning process. Teacher adaptation towards technology has no significant relationship with the COVID-19 pandemic. Teacher training and development, teacher experience and age significantly positively impact teacher attendance, technology adaptation and attaining learning objectives. Teacher gender has a significant positive impact on teacher attendance and attaining learning objectives, but it has a negative relationship with technology adaptation in male teachers.&nbsp; Our research is helpful for the government and policymakers in terms of adapting technology and attaining learning objectives.</p> Saad Munir Khan Zujaj Ahmed Muhammad Hanif Umar Farooq Umar Hayat Copyright (c) 2024 Saad Munir Khan, Zujaj Ahmed, Muhammad Hanif, Umar Farooq, Umar Hayat 2024-06-17 2024-06-17 3 3 95 116 10.69565/jess.v3i3.311 Lime versus Lemon: Factors That Constitute the Differences between Hausa and Igbo Entrepreneurs in Nigeria <p>The level of economic development, standards of living, and employment across countries or regions in a country differ considerably from the level of entrepreneurship. The same phenomenon is observed in Nigeria as literature downplayed the economic significance of Hausas despite being involved in long-distance trading for many centuries. Meanwhile, excellent interpretation of Igbo skills in economic activities has been widely reported. Therefore, this paper identified those factors accounting for differences in the entrepreneurial development between Hausa and Igbos in Nigeria. Ten Hausa and Igbo entrepreneurs were used in these qualitative interviews. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed thematically using ATLAS t. i7. Eventually, four broad categories identified were: the background of the entrepreneur; the nature and mindset of the entrepreneur; the entrepreneur’s goals and aims; and well as orientation and nature of the business. Thus, identifying these factors serves as a guide for policymakers to design an appropriate model for the development of Hausa entrepreneurship.</p> Ibrahim Tijjani Sabiu Muhammad Arslan Sarwar Waqas Manzoor Adnan Bashir Copyright (c) 2024 Ibrahim Tijjani Sabiu, Muhammad Arslan Sarwar, Waqas Manzoor , Adnan Bashir 2024-06-04 2024-06-04 3 3 1 15 10.69565/jess.v2024i3.309 Embedding 21st-century life skills in the curriculum: Analysis of elementary level curriculum for the teaching of life skills <p>Life skills refer to a wide range of capabilities that enable individuals to traverse the difficulties of daily life effectively. These include effective communication, leadership, initiative, productivity, cooperation, conflict management, emotional intelligence, resilience, self-awareness, and empathy. The current study aimed to find evidence of the integration of life skills in the Elementary Level Curriculum and seek Elementary School Teachers’ views regarding the reflection of life on these skills in real life. For this, the researcher employed a qualitative research approach. At first, a document analysis was adopted to seek evidence of life skills in the elementary-level curriculum. After that, interviews were conducted to find elementary school teachers' (ESTs) views on the reflection of life skills in everyday life. The study sample consisted of 25 ESTs. The study was delimited to the ESTs of district Kasur and the subject of English for grades VI, VII, and VIII. Findings revealed plenty of evidence of the integration of life skills in the Elementary Level Curriculum. However, its reflection is not seen in our everyday life. The reasons behind this non-practicability of life skills include lack of training and guidance, lack of role of family and community, pedagogical errors, the non-professional attitude of the teachers, poor and rigid examination system, the gaps between theory and practice, lack of teacher-student interaction, contextual factors, focus on academics only, lack of knowledge and lengthy syllabus, etc. Based on the study's findings, it was recommended that teachers be trained to make them pedagogically strong. The examination system may also be revised. The number --race may be converted with certificated achieved through extra-curricular activities.</p> Mohsin Ali Hasrat Sajida Kanwal Sher Muhammad Awan Khalid Saleem Copyright (c) 2024 Mohsin Ali Hasrat , Sajida Kanwal , Sher Muhammad Awan, Khalid Saleem 2024-06-05 2024-06-05 3 3 71 83 10.69565/jess.v3i3.304 Analyzing the effect of PQ4R learning intervention on learning outcomes and retention of slow learner students across the reading phase <p>Challenges related to inadequate learning outcomes and retention among slow learner students necessitate introducing innovative solutions within the educational process. Therefore, the study analyzed the effect of PQ4R learning intervention on learning outcomes and retention of slow learners across the reading phase using the experimental method with a mixed between-within repeated measure design. The slow learner students (n=20) were selected purposively. The participants were randomly assigned to 4 groups: three experimental groups who used the PQ4R learning strategy across the reading phase (before, during, and after reading) and one control group who did not apply PQ4R across the reading phase. Learning outcomes and retention were parameters in the form of multiple-choice questions measured over three times in a pretest, posttest, and follow-up period. A mixed Between-Within ANOVA was used to analyze the significance of students' learning outcomes over time. The findings proved that PQ4R learning intervention had a significant positive effect on the learning outcomes of experimental groups over time, and participants in the experimental groups scored higher in the post-test than the control group. Moreover, PQ4R learning intervention also significantly affects the retention of students' learning outcomes over time. Hence, consistent exposure to PQ4R learning intervention over time can lead to more sustainable improvements in slow-learner students' learning outcomes.</p> Aqsa Batool Sarwat Sultan Mehvish Shafiq Copyright (c) 2024 Aqsa Batool, Sarwat Sultan, Mehvish Shafiq 2024-07-09 2024-07-09 3 3 71 83 10.69565/jess.v3i3.331 Commercial Arbitration: A Messiah for the dying economy of Pakistan <p>The article titled "Commercial Arbitration: A Messiah for the Dying Economy of Pakistan" discusses the role of commercial arbitration in Pakistan's economy. It highlights how commercial arbitration can be a solution to economic challenges by providing a fair and efficient mechanism for resolving disputes. The article likely delves into how the implementation of commercial arbitration can attract foreign investment, promote business growth, and enhance economic stability in Pakistan. Additionally, it may explore the benefits of arbitration over traditional litigation, such as confidentiality, flexibility, and neutrality in decision-making. The main argument of the article is that commercial arbitration can be a solution to economic challenges by providing a fair and efficient mechanism for resolving disputes. The implementation of commercial arbitration can attract foreign investment, promote business growth, and enhance economic stability in Pakistan. The article also explores the benefits of arbitration over traditional litigation, such as confidentiality, flexibility, and neutrality in decision-making.</p> Syyad Arslan Hussain khushbakht qaiser Muhammad waqas Gujjar Muhammad Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Syyad Arslan Hussain, khushbakht qaiser, Muhammad waqas, Dr. Muhammad Ali 2024-06-05 2024-06-05 3 3 46 54 10.69565/jess.v2024i3.230 Social Media Engagement and Purchase Intentions: The Role of Influencer Attributes <p>This particular research endeavor is directed towards the precise identification and determination of the key attributes possessed by individuals who hold significant influence on social media platforms. These attributes have been found to exert a considerable impact on the level of engagement that consumers have with socisal sources, as well as their intention to make a purchase through these media channels. A total of eight distinct characteristics have been discovered through this research, and it has been revealed that each of these characteristics directly influences the success of social media influencers in shaping public mentality and the development of mindset. These identified characteristics include homophily, knowledge, credibility, trustworthiness, congruence with the product, entertainment value, educational value, and attractiveness. Among the vast array of factors that were considered in this study, it was determined that the entertainment value associated with social media influencers demonstrated the strongest correlation with customer engagement. This correlation can be observed both directly and indirectly, as external and internal effects play a role in influencing customer engagement. Furthermore, the findings of this investigation also showed that, out of all the aforementioned traits, the credibility of the influencer had the greatest impact on the willingness of customers to make a purchase. In addition to contributing to the field of influencer marketing research, this study proposes a unique and innovative methodology. This methodology is based on the empirical characterization of the directions of interactions and the magnitude of their respective effects. The ultimate goal of this methodology is to minimize variability and provide a more comprehensive understanding of the influence that social media influencers have on consumer behavior. By employing such a methodology, researchers can gain valuable insights into the dynamics of influencer marketing and develop strategies to optimize its effectiveness.</p> Uzma Zaidi Copyright (c) 2024 Uzma Zaidi 2024-06-15 2024-06-15 3 3 16 32 10.69565/jess.v3i3.312 Constructing Knowledge Resources Mastery: Exploring Knowledge Composition in Process Design – A Resource-Based Theory Perspective <p>The quest for knowledge resources is fundamentally rooted in the recognition of their intrinsic value. However, simply acquiring these valuable resources does not inherently guarantee their significance or transformative impact. This conceptual article investigates the pivotal role of knowledge resources within firms and examines how their integration into organizational processes can unlock their full potential. It explores the intricate dynamics of knowledge resource positioning, utilization, and interaction and how these factors collectively enhance the firm's value system. This study delves into the heterogeneous nature of knowledge resources through a comprehensive content analysis, moving beyond their inherent characteristics to understand their placement, utilization, and interaction within organizational processes. Our findings highlight the complex interplay between knowledge resources and their contribution to the firm's overall value. Despite its insightful contributions, this study is not without limitations. The conceptual nature of the research means that empirical validation is necessary to generalize the findings across different organizational contexts. Additionally, the scope of this study is limited to theoretical exploration, and future research could benefit from empirical investigations that test and refine the proposed concepts. Theoretically, this article enriches the knowledge management literature by applying the Resource-Based View (RBV) to elucidate how knowledge resources realize their potential within firm processes. Practically, it provides actionable insights for managers on effective knowledge resource management and value creation, underscoring the importance of strategic positioning and interaction of knowledge resources in organizational processes.</p> Syed Amjad Hussain Jakaria Dasan Aamar Ilyas Ahmed Hussain Khan Irfan Siddiq Copyright (c) 2024 Syed Amjad Hussain, Jakaria Dasan, Aamar Ilyas , Ahmed Hussain Khan, Irfan Siddiq 2024-06-29 2024-06-29 3 3 84 94 10.69565/jess.v3i3.310